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Venetian door
Venetian glass
Venetian red
Venetian soap
Venetian sumac
Venetian window
Venetic
Veneto
Venew
Veney
Venezia
Venezia Euganea
Venezia Giulia
Venezia Tridentina
Venezia-Euganea
Venezuela, Gulf of
Venezuelan
Venezuelan monetary unit
Venge
Vengeable
Vengeably
Vengeance
Vengeancely
Vengeful
vengefully
vengefulness
Vengement
Venger

Venezuela definitions

Flags of the World

Flag of Venezuela

CIA World Factbook, 2008

Background
Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president since 1999, seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism," which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking globalization and undermining regional stability. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, drug-related violence along the Colombian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.

Location
total: 912,050 sq km land: 882,050 sq km water: 30,000 sq km

Area - comparative
total: 4,993 km border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline
territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 15 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources
arable land: 2.85% permanent crops: 0.88% other: 96.27% (2005)

Irrigated land
Total: 8.37 cu km/yr (6%/7%/47%) Per capita: 313 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note
0-14 years: 31.6% (male 4,169,979/female 4,046,170) 15-64 years: 63.4% (male 8,120,661/female 8,369,065) 65 years and over: 5.1% (male 586,863/female 730,790) (2007 est.)

Median age
total: 24.9 years male: 24.3 years female: 25.5 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.031 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.803 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 22.52 deaths/1,000 live births male: 26.14 deaths/1,000 live births female: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 73.28 years male: 70.24 years female: 76.48 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate
noun: Venezuelan(s) adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 93% male: 93.3% female: 92.7% (2001 census)

Country name
conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela conventional short form: Venezuela local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela local short form: Venezuela

Government type
name: Caracas geographic coordinates: 10 30 N, 66 56 W time difference: UTC-4.5 (half an hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence
chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012) note: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%

Legislative branch
elections: last held 4 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - pro-government 167 (MVR 114, PODEMOS 15, PPT 11, indigenous 2, other 25), opposition 0; total seats by party as of 1 January 2008 - pro-government 152 (PSUV 114, PPT 11, indigenous 2, other 25), PODEMOS 15

Judicial branch
chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo ALVAREZ Herrera chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214 FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick DUDDY embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080 mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037 telephone: [58] (212) 975-9234, 975-6411 FAX: [58] (212) 975-8991

Flag description
agriculture: 3.5% industry: 40% services: 56.5% (2007 est.)

Labor force
agriculture: 13% industry: 23% services: 64% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate
lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 35.2% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index
revenues: $63.27 billion expenditures: $68.22 billion (2007 est.)

Public debt
general assessment: modern and expanding domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services international: country code - 58; 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network

Radio broadcast stations
total: 128 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 1,524 to 2,437 m: 34 914 to 1,523 m: 61 under 914 m: 18 (2007)

Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 262 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 97 under 914 m: 149 (2007)

Heliports
total: 682 km standard gauge: 682 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)

Roadways
total: 96,155 km paved: 32,308 km unpaved: 63,847 km (1999)

Waterways
note: Orinoco River (400 km) and Lake de Maracaibo navigable by oceangoing vessels (2005)

Merchant marine
total: 59 ships (1000 GRT or over) 808,721 GRT/1,285,783 DWT by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 14, chemical tanker 3, container 1, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 1 foreign-owned: 12 (Denmark 3, Greece 3, Mexico 3, Panama 1, Russia 1, Spain 1) registered in other countries: 11 (Bahamas 1, Panama 10) (2007)

Ports and terminals
males age 18-49: 6,236,012 females age 18-49: 6,137,622 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 18-49: 4,907,947 females age 18-49: 5,151,843 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually
males age 18-49: 252,396 females age 18-49: 237,300 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
current situation: Venezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; women and children from Colombia, China, Peru, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic are trafficked to and through Venezuela and subjected to commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor; Venezuelans are trafficked internally and to Western Europe, particularly Spain and the Netherlands, and to countries in the Caribbean region for commercial sexual exploitation; Venezuela is a transit country for illegal migrants from other countries in the region and for Asian nationals, some of whom are believed to be trafficking victims tier rating: Tier 3 - Venezuela does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so

Illicit drugs
small-scale illicit producer of opium and coca for the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: a republic in northern South America on the Caribbean; achieved independence from Spain in 1811; rich in oil [syn: Venezuela, Republic of Venezuela]

Merriam Webster's

geographical name country N South America; a republic capital Caracas area 352,143 square miles (912,050 square kilometers), population 20,609,000 Venezuelan adjective or noun



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