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Root definitions

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

ROOT, n. [L. radix. A root is a shoot, and only a different application of rod, L. radius.]
1. That part of a plant which enters and fixes itself in the earth, and serves to support the plant in an erect position, while by means of its fibrils it imbibes nutriment for the stem, branches and fruit.
2. The part of any thing that resembles the roots of a plant in manner of growth; as the roots of a cancer, of teeth, etc.
3. The bottom or lower part of any thing.
Deep to the roots of hell -
Burnet uses root of a mountain, but we now say base, foot or bottom. See Job
4. A plant whose root is esculent or the most useful part; as beets, carrots, etc.
5. The original or cause of any thing.
The love of money is the root of all evil. 1 Timothy 6.
6. The first ancestor.
They were the roots out of which sprung two distinct people -
7. In arithmetic and algebra, the root of any quantity is such a quantity as, when multiplied into itself a certain number of times, will exactly produce that quantity. Thus 2 is a root of 4, because when multiplied into itself, it exactly produces 4.
8. Means of growth. "He hath no root in himself;" that is, no soil in which grace can grow and flourish. Matthew 13.
9. In music, the fundamental note of any chord.
Root of bitterness, in Scripture, any error, sin or evil that produces discord or immorality.
To take root, to become planted or fixed; or to be established; to increase and spread.
to take deep root, to be firmly planted or established; to be deeply impressed.
ROOT, v.i.
1. To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots.
In deep grounds, the weeds root deeper.
2. To be firmly fixed; to be established.
The multiplying brood of the ungodly shall not take deep rooting.
3. To sink deep.
If any error chanced - to cause misapprehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment.
ROOT, v.t.
1. To plant and fix deep in the earth; used chiefly in the participle; as rooted trees or forests.
2. To plant deeply; to impress deeply and durably. Let the leading truths of the gospel be deeply rooted in the mind; let holy affections be well rooted in the heart.
3. In Scripture, to be rooted and grounded in Christ, is to be firmly united to him by faith and love, and well established in the belief of his character and doctrines. Ephesians 3.
ROOT, v.i. or t.
To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine. Swine root to find worms; they root the ground wherever they come.
To root up or out, to eradicate; to extirpate; to remove or destroy root and branch; to exterminate. Deutoronomy 29. Job 31.
ROOT'-BOUND, a. Fixed to the earth by roots.
ROOT'-BUILT, a. Built of roots.

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

1: (botany) the usually underground organ that lacks buds or leaves or nodes; absorbs water and mineral salts; usually it anchors the plant to the ground
2: the place where something begins, where it springs into being; "the Italian beginning of the Renaissance"; "Jupiter was the origin of the radiation"; "Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River"; "communism's Russian root" [syn: beginning, origin, root, rootage, source]
3: (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed; "thematic vowels are part of the stem" [syn: root, root word, base, stem, theme, radical]
4: a number that, when multiplied by itself some number of times, equals a given number
5: the set of values that give a true statement when substituted into an equation [syn: solution, root]
6: someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent) [syn: ancestor, ascendant, ascendent, antecedent, root] [ant: descendant, descendent]
7: a simple form inferred as the common basis from which related words in several languages can be derived by linguistic processes [syn: etymon, root]
8: the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jaw and serves as support [syn: root, tooth root] v
1: take root and begin to grow; "this plant roots quickly"
2: come into existence, originate; "The problem roots in her depression"
3: plant by the roots
4: dig with the snout; "the pig was rooting for truffles" [syn: rout, root, rootle]
5: become settled or established and stable in one's residence or life style; "He finally settled down" [syn: settle, root, take root, steady down, settle down]
6: cause to take roots

Merriam Webster's

biographical name Elihu 1845-1937 American lawyer & statesman

Merriam Webster's

I. noun Usage: often attributive Etymology: Middle English, from Old English r?t, from Old Norse; akin to Old English wyrt root, Latin radix, Greek rhiza Date: 12th century 1. a. the usually underground part of a seed plant body that originates usually from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage or as a means of anchorage and support, and differs from a stem especially in lacking nodes, buds, and leaves b. any subterranean plant part (as a true root or a bulb, tuber, rootstock, or other modified stem) especially when fleshy and edible 2. a. the part of a tooth within the socket; also any of the processes into which this part is often divided see tooth illustration b. the enlarged basal part of a hair within the skin c. the proximal end of a nerve d. the part of an organ or physical structure by which it is attached to the body <the root of the tongue> 3. a. something that is an origin or source (as of a condition or quality) <the love of money is the root of all evil 1 Timothy
6:10 (Authorized Version)
> b. one or more progenitors of a group of descendants usually used in plural c. an underlying support ; basis d. the essential core ; heart often used in the phrase at root e. close relationship with an environment ; tie usually used in plural <they put down roots in a farming community> 4. a. a quantity taken an indicated number of times as an equal factor <2 is a fourth root of 16> b. a number that reduces an equation to an identity when it is substituted for one variable 5. a. the lower part ; base b. the part by which an object is attached to something else 6. the simple element inferred as the basis from which a word is derived by phonetic change or by extension (as composition or the addition of an affix or inflectional ending) 7. the lowest tone of a chord (as C in a C minor chord) when the tones are arranged in ascending thirds Synonyms: see origin rooted adjective rootedness noun rootless adjective rootlessness noun rootlike adjective II. verb Date: 14th century transitive verb 1. a. to furnish with or enable to develop roots b. to fix or implant by or as if by roots 2. to remove altogether by or as if by pulling out by the roots usually used with out <root out dissenters> intransitive verb 1. to grow roots or take root 2. to have an origin or base III. verb Etymology: alteration of wroot, from Middle English wroten, from Old English wr?tan; akin to Old High German ruozzan to root Date: 1532 intransitive verb 1. to turn up or dig in the earth with the snout ; grub 2. to poke or dig about transitive verb to turn over, dig up, or discover and bring to light usually used with out <root out the cause of the problem> IV. intransitive verb Etymology: perhaps alteration of 2rout Date: 1889 1. to noisily applaud or encourage a contestant or team ; cheer 2. to wish the success of or lend support to someone or something rooter noun

Britannica Concise

In botany, the underground anchoring part of a plant. It grows downward in response to gravity, absorbs water and dissolved minerals, and stores reserve food. Primary root systems have a deep sturdy taproot (in gymnosperms and dicots; see cotyledon) plus secondary or lateral smaller roots, and root hairs. Grasses and other monocots produce a shallow diffuse mass of fibrous secondary roots. Additional support (e.g., in corn and orchids) comes from stem offshoots called adventitious, or prop, roots. Fleshy roots that store food may be modified taproots (e.g., carrots, turnips, and beets) or modified adventitious roots (e.g. cassava). Tubers such as the potato are modified, fleshy, underground stems, or rhizomes. Aerial roots arise from the stem and either pass for some distance through the air before reaching the soil or remain hanging in the air.

Oxford Reference Dictionary

1. n. & v. --n. 1 a the part of a plant normally below the ground, attaching it to the earth and conveying nourishment to it from the soil. b (in pl.) such a part divided into branches or fibres. c the corresponding organ of an epiphyte; the part attaching ivy to its support. d the permanent underground stock of a plant. e any small plant with a root for transplanting. 2 a any plant, e.g. a turnip or carrot, with an edible root. b such a root. 3 (in pl.) the sources of or reasons for one's long-standing emotional attachment to a place, community, etc. 4 a the embedded part of a bodily organ or structure, e.g. hair, tooth, nail, etc. b the part of a thing attaching it to a greater or more fundamental whole. c (in pl.) the base of a mountain etc. 5 a the basic cause, source, or origin (love of money is the root of all evil; has its roots in the distant past). b (attrib.) (of an idea etc.) from which the rest originated. 6 the basis of something, its means of continuance or growth (has its root(s) in selfishness; has no root in the nature of things). 7 the essential substance or nature of something (get to the root of things). 8 Math. a a number or quantity that when multiplied by itself a usu. specified number of times gives a specified number or quantity (the cube root of eight is two). b a square root. c a value of an unknown quantity satisfying a given equation. 9 Philol. any ultimate unanalysable element of language; a basis, not necessarily surviving as a word in itself, on which words are made by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or by other modification. 10 Mus. the fundamental note of a chord. 11 Bibl. a scion, an offshoot (there shall be a root of Jesse). 12 Austral. & NZ coarse sl. a an act of sexual intercourse. b a (female) sexual partner. --v. 1 a intr. take root or grow roots. b tr. cause to do this (take care to root them firmly). 2 tr. a fix firmly; establish (fear rooted him to the spot). b (as rooted adj.) firmly established (her affection was deeply rooted; rooted objection to). 3 tr. (usu. foll. by out, up) drag or dig up by the roots. 4 tr. Austral. coarse sl. a have sexual intercourse with (a woman). b exhaust, frustrate. Phrases and idioms: pull up by the roots 1 uproot. 2 eradicate, destroy. put down roots 1 begin to draw nourishment from the soil. 2 become settled or established. root and branch thorough(ly), radical(ly). root beer US an effervescent drink made from an extract of roots. root-mean-square Math. the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of values. root out find and get rid of. root sign Math. = radical sign. strike at the root (or roots) of set about destroying. strike (or take) root 1 begin to grow and draw nourishment from the soil. 2 become fixed or established. Derivatives: rootage n. rootedness n. rootless adj. rootlet n. rootlike adj. rooty adj. Etymology: OE rot f. ON rót, rel. to WORT & L radix: see RADIX 2. v. 1 a intr. (of an animal, esp. a pig) turn up the ground with the snout, beak, etc., in search of food. b tr. (foll. by up) turn up (the ground) by rooting. 2 a intr. (foll. by around, in, etc.) rummage. b tr. (foll. by out or up) find or extract by rummaging. 3 intr. (foll. by for) US sl. encourage by applause or support. Derivatives: rooter n. (in sense 3). Etymology: earlier wroot f. OE wrotan & ON róta: rel. to OE wrot snout

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root, v. i. [AS. wr[=o]tan; akin to wr[=o]t a snout, trunk, D. wroeten to root, G. r["u]ssel snout, trunk, proboscis, Icel. r[=o]ta to root, and perhaps to L. rodere to gnaw (E. rodent) or to E. root, n.] 1. To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine. 2. Hence, to seek for favor or advancement by low arts or groveling servility; to fawn servilely.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root, v. t. To turn up or to dig out with the snout; as, the swine roots the earth.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root, n. [Icel. r[=o]t (for vr[=o]t); akin to E. wort, and perhaps to root to turn up the earth. See Wort.] 1. (Bot.) (a) The underground portion of a plant, whether a true root or a tuber, a bulb or rootstock, as in the potato, the onion, or the sweet flag. (b) The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root (r[=oo]t), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rooted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rooting.] 1. To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow. In deep grounds the weeds root deeper. --Mortimer. 2. To be firmly fixed; to be established. If any irregularity chanced to intervene and to cause misappehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment. --Bp. Fell.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root, v. t. 1. To plant and fix deeply in the earth, or as in the earth; to implant firmly; hence, to make deep or radical; to establish; -- used chiefly in the participle; as, rooted trees or forests; rooted dislike. 2. To tear up by the root; to eradicate; to extirpate; -- with up, out, or away. ``I will go root away the noisome weeds.'' --Shak. The Lord rooted them out of their land . . . and cast them into another land. --Deut. xxix. 28.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Root Root, v. i. [Cf. Rout to roar.] To shout for, or otherwise noisly applaud or encourage, a contestant, as in sports; hence, to wish earnestly for the success of some one or the happening of some event, with the superstitious notion that this action may have efficacy; -- usually with for; as, the crowd rooted for the home team. [Slang or Cant, U. S.]

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

To take place, root, sides, stock, etc. See under Place, Root, Side, etc. To take the air. (a) (Falconry) To seek to escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon; -- said of a bird. (b) See under Air. To take the field. (Mil.) See under Field. To take thought, to be concerned or anxious; to be solicitous. --Matt. vi. 25, 27. To take to heart. See under Heart. To take to task, to reprove; to censure.

Collin's Cobuild Dictionary

(roots, rooting, rooted) Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English. 1. The roots of a plant are the parts of it that grow under the ground. ...the twisted roots of an apple tree. N-COUNT: usu pl 2. If you root a plant or cutting or if it roots, roots form on the bottom of its stem and it starts to grow. Most plants will root in about six to eight weeks... Root the cuttings in a heated propagator. VERB: V, V n 3. Root vegetables or root crops are grown for their roots which are large and can be eaten. ...root crops such as carrots and potatoes. ADJ: ADJ n 4. The root of a hair or tooth is the part of it that is underneath the skin. ...decay around the roots of teeth. N-COUNT 5. You can refer to the place or culture that a person or their family comes from as their roots. I am proud of my Brazilian roots... N-PLURAL: usu poss N 6. You can refer to the cause of a problem or of an unpleasant situation as the root of it or the roots of it. We got to the root of the problem... N-COUNT: usu the N of n 7. The root of a word is the part that contains its meaning and to which other parts can be added. (TECHNICAL) The word 'secretary' comes from the same Latin root as the word 'secret'. N-COUNT 8. If you root through or in something, you search for something by moving other things around. She rooted through the bag, found what she wanted, and headed toward the door... = rummage VERB: V prep 9. see also rooted, cube root, grass roots, square root 10. If something has been completely changed or destroyed, you can say that it has been changed or destroyed root and branch. (WRITTEN) The forces of National Socialism were transforming Germany root and branch... Some prison practices are in need of root and branch reform. PHRASE: PHR after v, PHR n 11. If someone puts down roots, they make a place their home, for example by taking part in activities there or by making a lot of friends there. When they got to Montana, they put down roots and built a life. = settle down PHRASE: V inflects 12. If an idea, belief, or custom takes root, it becomes established among a group of people. Time would be needed for democracy to take root... PHRASE: V inflects

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

root (shoresh; rhiza): Frequently mentioned in the Old Testament and New Testament, but almost always in a figurative sense, e.g. "root of the righteous" (Pr 12:3,12); "root that beareth gall" (De 29:18); "Their root shall be as rottenness" (Isa 5:24); "root of bitterness" (Heb 12:15). Also of peoples: "they whose root is in Amalek" (Jud 5:14); of Assyria (Eze 31:7); "Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up" (Ho 9:16); "Judah shall again take root downward" (2Ki 19:30; compare Isa 27:6; 37:31); the root of Jesse (Isa 11:10; Ro 15:12); root of David (Re 5:5; 22:16).

Soule's Dictionary of English Synonyms

I. n. 1. Bottom, base, foundation, lower part. 2. Cause, origin, source, occasion, parent. 3. Radical, radix, etymon, primitive word, stem. 4. First ancestor. II. v. n. Take root. III. v. a. 1. Implant, set, fix, fasten. 2. Establish, confirm, sink deep, plant deeply. 3. Eradicate, tear out, exterminate, extirpate, destroy utterly, remove utterly. 4. Dig, burrow with the snout.

Moby Thesaurus

IC analysis, accidence, acclaim, affix, affixation, allomorph, ancestors, anchor, antecedents, applaud, base, basis, beat the bushes, bed, bed on, bedrock, beginning, birthplace, boost, bottom, bottom on, bound morpheme, bring to light, bud, build on, bulb, bulbil, burgeon, burrow, burst forth, catch, cause, cheer, cheer on, clap, clap the hands, cognate, commencement, completely, conception, confirm, conjugation, core, corm, cradle, cutting, declension, deep-dye, define, delve, derivation, derivative, descent, destroy, develop, difference of form, dig, dig out, dig up, discover, doublet, drive on, egg on, eliminate, embed, enclitic, encore, encourage, engraft, engrave, entirely, entrench, eponym, eradicate, essentiality, establish, etch, etymon, explore, exterminate, extirpate, family, family tree, fatherland, ferret, find, fix, flourish, footing, forage, forebears, forefathers, formative, found, found on, foundation, fount, fountain, fountainhead, free form, frisk, gemmate, genealogy, genesis, germinate, give a hand, go through, goad on, grass roots, ground, ground on, groundwork, grow, grow rank, hail, hasten on, head, hear it for, heart, heritage, hie on, hound on, house, hunt, hurry on, imbed, immediate constituent analysis, impact, implant, impress, imprint, inception, infix, infixation, inflection, infrastructure, ingrain, inscribe, jam, leaf, leaf out, leave, lineage, lodge, look around, look round, look through, luxuriate, marrow, morph, morpheme, morphemic analysis, morphemics, morphology, morphophonemics, motherland, nose, nose around, origin, original, origination, origins, overgrow, overrun, pack, paradigm, pedigree, pith, plant, poke, poke around, predecessors, prefix, prefixation, primitive, print, proclitic, provenance, provenience, pry, pullulate, put forth, put forth leaves, put out buds, quick, quintessence, radical, radically, radicle, radix, ransack, research, rhizome, riot, rise, rock bottom, root and branch, root for, root on, root out, root up, roots, rootstock, rummage, search, search through, seat, set, set in, set on, settle, shoot, shoot up, smell around, soul, source, speed on, spread, sprout, sprout up, spur on, stamp, stem, stereotype, stick, stick fast, stock, strike root, stuff, substance, substratum, suffix, suffixation, support, take root, tap, taproot, theme, thrive, totally, tuber, tubercle, turn up, uncover, undergird, underlie, underpinning, unearth, uproot, upspear, upsprout, urge on, utterly, vegetate, wedge, well, wellhead, whip on, wholly, word-formation

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