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ROOT, n. [L. radix. A root is a shoot, and only a different application of rod, L. radius.]
biographical name Elihu 1845-1937 American lawyer & statesman
In botany, the underground anchoring part of a plant. It grows downward in response to gravity, absorbs water and dissolved minerals, and stores reserve food. Primary root systems have a deep sturdy taproot (in gymnosperms and dicots; see cotyledon) plus secondary or lateral smaller roots, and root hairs. Grasses and other monocots produce a shallow diffuse mass of fibrous secondary roots. Additional support (e.g., in corn and orchids) comes from stem offshoots called adventitious, or prop, roots. Fleshy roots that store food may be modified taproots (e.g., carrots, turnips, and beets) or modified adventitious roots (e.g. cassava). Tubers such as the potato are modified, fleshy, underground stems, or rhizomes. Aerial roots arise from the stem and either pass for some distance through the air before reaching the soil or remain hanging in the air.
1. n. & v. --n. 1 a the part of a plant normally below the ground, attaching it to the earth and conveying nourishment to it from the soil. b (in pl.) such a part divided into branches or fibres. c the corresponding organ of an epiphyte; the part attaching ivy to its support. d the permanent underground stock of a plant. e any small plant with a root for transplanting. 2 a any plant, e.g. a turnip or carrot, with an edible root. b such a root. 3 (in pl.) the sources of or reasons for one's long-standing emotional attachment to a place, community, etc. 4 a the embedded part of a bodily organ or structure, e.g. hair, tooth, nail, etc. b the part of a thing attaching it to a greater or more fundamental whole. c (in pl.) the base of a mountain etc. 5 a the basic cause, source, or origin (love of money is the root of all evil; has its roots in the distant past). b (attrib.) (of an idea etc.) from which the rest originated. 6 the basis of something, its means of continuance or growth (has its root(s) in selfishness; has no root in the nature of things). 7 the essential substance or nature of something (get to the root of things). 8 Math. a a number or quantity that when multiplied by itself a usu. specified number of times gives a specified number or quantity (the cube root of eight is two). b a square root. c a value of an unknown quantity satisfying a given equation. 9 Philol. any ultimate unanalysable element of language; a basis, not necessarily surviving as a word in itself, on which words are made by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or by other modification. 10 Mus. the fundamental note of a chord. 11 Bibl. a scion, an offshoot (there shall be a root of Jesse). 12 Austral. & NZ coarse sl. a an act of sexual intercourse. b a (female) sexual partner. --v. 1 a intr. take root or grow roots. b tr. cause to do this (take care to root them firmly). 2 tr. a fix firmly; establish (fear rooted him to the spot). b (as rooted adj.) firmly established (her affection was deeply rooted; rooted objection to). 3 tr. (usu. foll. by out, up) drag or dig up by the roots. 4 tr. Austral. coarse sl. a have sexual intercourse with (a woman). b exhaust, frustrate. Phrases and idioms: pull up by the roots 1 uproot. 2 eradicate, destroy. put down roots 1 begin to draw nourishment from the soil. 2 become settled or established. root and branch thorough(ly), radical(ly). root beer US an effervescent drink made from an extract of roots. root-mean-square Math. the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of values. root out find and get rid of. root sign Math. = radical sign. strike at the root (or roots) of set about destroying. strike (or take) root 1 begin to grow and draw nourishment from the soil. 2 become fixed or established. Derivatives: rootage n. rootedness n. rootless adj. rootlet n. rootlike adj. rooty adj. Etymology: OE rot f. ON rót, rel. to WORT & L radix: see RADIX 2. v. 1 a intr. (of an animal, esp. a pig) turn up the ground with the snout, beak, etc., in search of food. b tr. (foll. by up) turn up (the ground) by rooting. 2 a intr. (foll. by around, in, etc.) rummage. b tr. (foll. by out or up) find or extract by rummaging. 3 intr. (foll. by for) US sl. encourage by applause or support. Derivatives: rooter n. (in sense 3). Etymology: earlier wroot f. OE wrotan & ON róta: rel. to OE wrot snout
Root Root, v. i. [AS. wr[=o]tan; akin to wr[=o]t a snout, trunk, D. wroeten to root, G. r["u]ssel snout, trunk, proboscis, Icel. r[=o]ta to root, and perhaps to L. rodere to gnaw (E. rodent) or to E. root, n.] 1. To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine. 2. Hence, to seek for favor or advancement by low arts or groveling servility; to fawn servilely.
Root Root, v. t. To turn up or to dig out with the snout; as, the swine roots the earth.
Root Root, n. [Icel. r[=o]t (for vr[=o]t); akin to E. wort, and perhaps to root to turn up the earth. See Wort.] 1. (Bot.) (a) The underground portion of a plant, whether a true root or a tuber, a bulb or rootstock, as in the potato, the onion, or the sweet flag. (b) The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids.
Root Root (r[=oo]t), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rooted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rooting.] 1. To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow. In deep grounds the weeds root deeper. --Mortimer. 2. To be firmly fixed; to be established. If any irregularity chanced to intervene and to cause misappehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment. --Bp. Fell.
Root Root, v. t. 1. To plant and fix deeply in the earth, or as in the earth; to implant firmly; hence, to make deep or radical; to establish; -- used chiefly in the participle; as, rooted trees or forests; rooted dislike. 2. To tear up by the root; to eradicate; to extirpate; -- with up, out, or away. ``I will go root away the noisome weeds.'' --Shak. The Lord rooted them out of their land . . . and cast them into another land. --Deut. xxix. 28.
Root Root, v. i. [Cf. Rout to roar.] To shout for, or otherwise noisly applaud or encourage, a contestant, as in sports; hence, to wish earnestly for the success of some one or the happening of some event, with the superstitious notion that this action may have efficacy; -- usually with for; as, the crowd rooted for the home team. [Slang or Cant, U. S.]
To take place, root, sides, stock, etc. See under Place, Root, Side, etc. To take the air. (a) (Falconry) To seek to escape by trying to rise higher than the falcon; -- said of a bird. (b) See under Air. To take the field. (Mil.) See under Field. To take thought, to be concerned or anxious; to be solicitous. --Matt. vi. 25, 27. To take to heart. See under Heart. To take to task, to reprove; to censure.
(roots, rooting, rooted) Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English. 1. The roots of a plant are the parts of it that grow under the ground. ...the twisted roots of an apple tree. N-COUNT: usu pl 2. If you root a plant or cutting or if it roots, roots form on the bottom of its stem and it starts to grow. Most plants will root in about six to eight weeks... Root the cuttings in a heated propagator. VERB: V, V n 3. Root vegetables or root crops are grown for their roots which are large and can be eaten. ...root crops such as carrots and potatoes. ADJ: ADJ n 4. The root of a hair or tooth is the part of it that is underneath the skin. ...decay around the roots of teeth. N-COUNT 5. You can refer to the place or culture that a person or their family comes from as their roots. I am proud of my Brazilian roots... N-PLURAL: usu poss N 6. You can refer to the cause of a problem or of an unpleasant situation as the root of it or the roots of it. We got to the root of the problem... N-COUNT: usu the N of n 7. The root of a word is the part that contains its meaning and to which other parts can be added. (TECHNICAL) The word 'secretary' comes from the same Latin root as the word 'secret'. N-COUNT 8. If you root through or in something, you search for something by moving other things around. She rooted through the bag, found what she wanted, and headed toward the door... = rummage VERB: V prep 9. see also rooted, cube root, grass roots, square root 10. If something has been completely changed or destroyed, you can say that it has been changed or destroyed root and branch. (WRITTEN) The forces of National Socialism were transforming Germany root and branch... Some prison practices are in need of root and branch reform. PHRASE: PHR after v, PHR n 11. If someone puts down roots, they make a place their home, for example by taking part in activities there or by making a lot of friends there. When they got to Montana, they put down roots and built a life. = settle down PHRASE: V inflects 12. If an idea, belief, or custom takes root, it becomes established among a group of people. Time would be needed for democracy to take root... PHRASE: V inflects
root (shoresh; rhiza): Frequently mentioned in the Old Testament and New Testament, but almost always in a figurative sense, e.g. "root of the righteous" (Pr 12:3,12); "root that beareth gall" (De 29:18); "Their root shall be as rottenness" (Isa 5:24); "root of bitterness" (Heb 12:15). Also of peoples: "they whose root is in Amalek" (Jud 5:14); of Assyria (Eze 31:7); "Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up" (Ho 9:16); "Judah shall again take root downward" (2Ki 19:30; compare Isa 27:6; 37:31); the root of Jesse (Isa 11:10; Ro 15:12); root of David (Re 5:5; 22:16).
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