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OI93
OI94
OI95
OI96
OI97
OI98
OI99
OIC
Oidemia fusca
Oidemia nigra
oidium
Oidium Tuckeri
OIG
oik
Oil bag
oil beetle
Oil box
oil burner
oil business
oil cake
oil cartel
Oil cellar
oil change
Oil cock
oil color
oil colour
oil company
oil conservation

Oil definitions

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

OIL, n. It seems to be named from its inflammability, for aelan, is to kindle, and to oil; hence anaelan, to anneal; aeled, fire. L. oleum; Gr.]
An unctuous substance expressed or drawn from several animal and vegetable substances. The distinctive characters of oil are inflammability, fluidity, and insolubility in water. Oils are fixed or fat, and volatile or essential. They have a smooth feel, and most of them have little taste or smell. Animal oil is found in all animal substances. Vegetable oils are produced by expression, infusion or distillation.
OIL, v.t. To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil.
OIL'-BAG, n. A bag, cyst or gland in animals containing oil.
OIL'-COLOR, n. A color made by grinding a coloring substance in oil.

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water
2: oil paint containing pigment that is used by an artist [syn: oil, oil color, oil colour]
3: a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons [syn: petroleum, crude oil, crude, rock oil, fossil oil, oil]
4: any of a group of liquid edible fats that are obtained from plants [syn: vegetable oil, oil] v
1: cover with oil, as if by rubbing; "oil the wooden surface"
2: administer an oil or ointment to ; often in a religious ceremony of blessing [syn: anoint, inunct, oil, anele, embrocate]

Merriam Webster's

I. noun Usage: often attributive Etymology: Middle English oile, from Anglo-French, from Latin oleum olive oil, from Greek elaion, from elaia olive Date: 13th century 1. a. any of numerous unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or can be liquefied easily on warming, are soluble in ether but not in water, and leave a greasy stain on paper or cloth b. (1) petroleum (2) the petroleum industry 2. a substance (as a cosmetic preparation) of oily consistency <bath oil> 3. a. an oil color used by an artist b. a painting done in oil colors 4. unctuous or flattering speech II. verb Date: 15th century transitive verb to smear, rub over, furnish, or lubricate with oil intransitive verb to take on fuel oil

Oxford Reference Dictionary

n. & v. --n. 1 any of various thick, viscous, usu. inflammable liquids insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents (see also essential oil, fixed oil, mineral oil, volatile oil). 2 US petroleum. 3 (in comb.) using oil as fuel (oil-heater). 4 a (usu. in pl.) = oil-paint. b colloq. a picture painted in oil-paints. 5 (in pl.) = OILSKIN. --v. 1 tr. apply oil to; lubricate. 2 tr. impregnate or treat with oil (oiled silk). 3 tr. & intr. supply with or take on oil as fuel. 4 tr. & intr. make (butter, grease, etc.) into or (of butter etc.) become an oily liquid. Phrases and idioms: oil-bird a guacharo. oil drum a metal drum used for transporting oil. oiled silk silk made waterproof with oil. oil engine an engine driven by the explosion of vaporized oil mixed with air. oil-fired using oil as fuel. oil a person's hand (or palm) bribe a person. oil-lamp a lamp using oil as fuel. oil-meal ground oilcake. oil of vitriol see VITRIOL. oil-paint (or -colour) a mix of ground colour pigment and oil. oil-painting 1 the art of painting in oil-paints. 2 a picture painted in oil-paints. oil-palm either of two trees, Elaeis guineensis of W. Africa, or E. oleifera of the US, from which palm oil is extracted. oil-pan an engine sump. oil-paper a paper made transparent or waterproof by soaking in oil. oil-press an apparatus for pressing oil from seeds etc. oil rig a structure with equipment for drilling an oil well. oil-sand a stratum of porous rock yielding petroleum. oil-seed any of various seeds from cultivated crops yielding oil, e.g. rape, peanut, or cotton. oil-shale a fine-grained rock from which oil can be extracted. oil-slick a smooth patch of oil, esp. one on the sea. oil-tanker a ship designed to carry oil in bulk. oil one's tongue say flattering or glib things. oil well a well from which mineral oil is drawn. oil the wheels help make things go smoothly. well oiled colloq. very drunk. Derivatives: oilless adj. Etymology: ME oli, oile f. AF, ONF olie = OF oile etc. f. L oleum (olive) oil f. olea olive

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Candlenut Can"dle*nut`, n. 1. The fruit of a euphorbiaceous tree or shrub (Aleurites moluccana), native of some of the Pacific islands. It is used by the natives as a candle. The oil from the nut ( candlenut, or kekune, oil) has many uses. 2. The tree itself.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Oil Oil (oil), n. [OE. oile, OF. oile, F. huile, fr. L. oleum; akin to Gr. ?. Cf. Olive.] Any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, not miscible with water; as, olive oil, whale oil, rock oil, etc. They are of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin and of varied composition, and they are variously used for food, for solvents, for anointing, lubrication, illumination, etc. By extension, any substance of an oily consistency; as, oil of vitriol. Note: The mineral oils are varieties of petroleum. See Petroleum. The vegetable oils are of two classes, essential oils (see under Essential), and natural oils which in general resemble the animal oils and fats. Most of the natural oils and the animal oils and fats consist of ethereal salts of glycerin, with a large number of organic acids, principally stearic, oleic, and palmitic, forming respectively stearin, olein, and palmitin. Stearin and palmitin prevail in the solid oils and fats, and olein in the liquid oils. Mutton tallow, beef tallow, and lard are rich in stearin, human fat and palm oil in palmitin, and sperm and cod-liver oils in olein. In making soaps, the acids leave the glycerin and unite with the soda or potash. Animal oil, Bone oil, Dipple's oil, etc. (Old Chem.), a complex oil obtained by the distillation of animal substances, as bones. See Bone oil, under Bone. Drying oils, Essential oils. (Chem.) See under Drying, and Essential. Ethereal oil of wine, Heavy oil of wine. (Chem.) See under Ethereal. Fixed oil. (Chem.) See under Fixed. Oil bag (Zo["o]l.), a bag, cyst, or gland in animals, containing oil. Oil beetle (Zo["o]l.), any beetle of the genus Meloe and allied genera. When disturbed they emit from the joints of the legs a yellowish oily liquor. Some species possess vesicating properties, and are used instead of cantharides. Oil box, or Oil cellar (Mach.), a fixed box or reservoir, for lubricating a bearing; esp., the box for oil beneath the journal of a railway-car axle. Oil cake. See under Cake. Oil cock, a stopcock connected with an oil cup. See Oil cup. Oil color. (a) A paint made by grinding a coloring substance in oil. (b) Such paints, taken in a general sense.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Oil Oil, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Oiled; p. pr. & vb. n. Oiling.] To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil.

Collin's Cobuild Dictionary

(oils, oiling, oiled) Frequency: The word is one of the 700 most common words in English. 1. Oil is a smooth, thick liquid that is used as a fuel and for making the parts of machines move smoothly. Oil is found underground. The company buys and sells about 600,000 barrels of oil a day. ...the rapid rise in prices for oil and petrol. ...a small oil lamp. N-MASS 2. If you oil something, you put oil onto or into it, for example to make it work smoothly or to protect it. A crew of assistants oiled and adjusted the release mechanism until it worked perfectly... VERB: V n 3. Oil is a smooth, thick liquid made from plants and is often used for cooking. Combine the beans, chopped mint and olive oil in a large bowl... N-MASS: usu n N 4. Oil is a smooth, thick liquid, often with a pleasant smell, that you rub into your skin or add to your bath. Try a hot bath with some relaxing bath oil... N-MASS: usu supp N 5. Oils are oil paintings. Her colourful oils and works on paper have a naive, dreamlike quality. N-COUNT: usu pl 6. When an artist paints in oils, he or she uses oil paints. When she paints in oils she always uses the same range of colours. N-PLURAL 7. see also castor oil, crude oil, olive oil 8. If someone or something oils the wheels of a process or system, they help things to run smoothly and successfully. On all such occasions, the king stands in the wings, oiling the wheels of diplomacy. PHRASE: V inflects 9. to burn the midnight oil: see midnight

Easton's Bible Dictionary

Only olive oil seems to have been used among the Hebrews. It was used for many purposes: for anointing the body or the hair (Ex. 29:7; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 23:5; 92:10; 104:15; Luke 7:46); in some of the offerings (Ex. 29:40; Lev. 7:12; Num. 6:15; 15:4), but was excluded from the sin-offering (Lev. 5:11) and the jealousy-offering (Num. 5:15); for burning in lamps (Ex. 25:6; 27:20; Matt. 25:3); for medicinal purposes (Isa. 1:6; Luke 10:34; James 5:14); and for anointing the dead (Matt. 26:12; Luke 23:56).

It was one of the most valuable products of the country (Deut. 32:13; Ezek. 16:13), and formed an article of extensive commerce with Tyre (27:17).

The use of it was a sign of gladness (Ps. 92:10; Isa. 61:3), and its omission a token of sorrow (2 Sam. 14:2; Matt. 6:17). It was very abundant in Galilee. (See OLIVE.)

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

oil (shemen; elaion):

1. Terms

2. Production and Storage

3. Uses

(1) As a Commodity of Exchange

(2) As a Cosmetic

(3) As a Medicine

(4) As a Food

(5) As an Illuminant

(6) In Religious Rites

(a) Consecration

(b) Offerings

(c) Burials

4. Figurative Uses

Shemen, literally, "fat," corresponds to the common Arabic senin of similar meaning, although now applied to boiled butter fat.

1. Terms:

Another Hebrew word, zayith (zeth), "olive," occurs with shemen in several passages (Ex 27:20; 30:24; Le 24:2). The corresponding Arabic zeit, a contraction of zeitun, which is the name for the olive tree as well as the fruit, is now applied to oils in general, to distinguish them from solid fats. Zeit usually means olive oil, unless some qualifying name indicates another oil. A corresponding use was made of shemen, and the oil referred to so many times in the Bible was olive oil (except Es 2:12). Compare this with the Greek elaion, "oil," a neuter noun from elaia, "olive," the origin of the English word "oil." yitshar, literally, "glistening," which occurs less frequently, is used possibly because of the light-giving quality of olive oil, or it may have been used to indicate fresh oil, as the clean, newly pressed oil is bright. meshach, a Chaldaic word, occurs twice: Ezr 6:9; 7:22. elaion, is the New Testament term.

2. Production and Storage:

Olive oil has been obtained, from the earliest times, by pressing the fruit in such a way as to filter out the oil and other liquids from the residue. The Scriptural references correspond so nearly to the methods practiced in Syria up to the present time, and the presses uncovered by excavators at such sites as Gezer substantiate so well the similarity of these methods, that a description of the oil presses and modes of expression still being employed in Syria will be equally true of those in use in early Israelite times.

The olives to yield the greatest amount of oil are allowed to ripen, although some oil is expressed from the green fruit. As the olive ripens it turns black. The fruit begins to fall from the trees in September, but the main crop is gathered after the first rains in November. The olives which have not fallen naturally or have not been blown off by the storms are beaten from the trees with long poles (compare De 24:20). The fruit is gathered from the ground into baskets and carried on the heads of the women, or on donkeys to the houses or oil presses. Those carried to the houses are preserved for eating. Those carried to the presses are piled in heaps until fermentation begins. This breaks down the oil cells and causes a more abundant flow of oil. The fruit thus softened may be trod out with the feet (Mic 6:15)--which is now seldom practiced--or crushed in a handmill. Such a mill was uncovered at Gezer beside an oil press. Stone mortars with wooden pestles are also used. Any of these methods crushes the fruit, leaving only the stone unbroken, and yields a purer oil (Ex 27:20). The method now generally practiced of crushing the fruit and kernels with an edgerunner mill probably dates from Roman times. These mills are of crude construction. The stones are cut from native limestone and are turned by horses or mules. Remains of huge stones of this type are found near the old Roman presses in Mt. Lebanon and other districts.

The second step in the preparation of the oil is the expression. In districts where the olives are plentiful and there is no commercial demand for the oil, the householders crush the fruit in a mortar, mix the crushed mass with water, and after the solid portions have had time to settle, the pure sweet oil is skimmed from the surface of the water. This method gives a delicious oil, but is wasteful. This is no doubt the beaten oil referred to in connection with religious ceremonials (Ex 27:20). Usually the crushed fruit is spread in portions on mats of reeds or goats' hair, the corners of which are folded over the mass, and the packets thus formed are piled one upon another between upright supports. These supports were formerly two stone columns or the two sections of a split stone cylinder hollowed out within to receive the mats. Large hollow tree trunks are still similarly used in Syria. A flat stone is next placed on top, and then a heavy log is placed on the pile in such a manner that one end can be fitted into a socket made in a wall or rock in close proximity to the pile. This socket becomes the fulcrum of a large lever of the second class. The lever is worked in the same manner as that used in the wine presses (see WINE PRESS). These presses are now being almost wholly superseded by hydraulic presses. The juice which runs from the press, consisting of oil, extractive matter and water, is conducted to vats or run into jars and allowed to stand until the oil separates. The oil is then drawn off from the surface, or the watery fluid and sediment is drawn away through a hole near the bottom of the jar, leaving the oil in the container. (For the construction of the ancient oil presses, see The Excavations of Gezer, by Macalister.) The oil, after standing for some time to allow further sediment to settle, is stored either in huge earthenware jars holding 100 to 200 gallons, or in underground cisterns (compare 1Ch 27:28) holding a much larger quantity. Some of these cisterns in Beirut hold several tons of oil each (2Ch 11:11; 32:28; Ne 13:5,12; Pr 21:20). In the homes the oil is kept in small earthen jars of various shapes, usually having spouts by which the oil can be easily poured (1Ki 17:12; 2Ki 4:2). In 1Sa 16:13; 1Ki 1:39, horns of oil are mentioned.

3. Uses:

(1) As a Commodity of Exchange.

Olive oil when properly made and stored will keep sweet for years, hence, was a good form of merchandise to hold. Oil is still sometimes given in payment (1Ki 5:11; Eze 27:17; Ho 12:1; Lu 16:6; Re 18:13).

(2) As a Cosmetic.

From earliest times oil was used as a cosmetic, especially for oiling the limbs and head. Oil used in this way was usually scented (see OINTMENT). Oil is still used in this manner by the Arabs, principally to keep the skin and scalp soft when traveling in dry desert regions where there is no opportunity to bathe. Sesame oil has replaced olive oil to some extent for this purpose. Homer, Pliny and other early writers mention its use for external application. Pliny claimed it was used to protect the body against the cold. Many Biblical references indicate the use of oil as a cosmetic (Ex 25:6; De 28:40; Ru 3:3; 2Sa 12:20; 14:2; Es 2:12; Ps 23:5; 92:10; 104:15; 141:5; Eze 16:9; Mic 6:15; Lu 7:46).

(3) As a Medicine.

From early Egyptian literature down to late Arabic medical works, oil is mentioned as a valuable remedy. Many queer prescriptions contain olive oil as one of their ingredients. The good Samaritan used oil mingled with wine to dress the wounds of the man who fell among robbers (Mr 6:13; Lu 10:34.)

(4) As a Food.

Olive oil replaces butter to a large extent in the diet of the people of the Mediterranean countries. In Bible lands food is fried in it, it is added to stews, and is poured over boiled vegetables, such as beans, peas and lentils, and over salads, sour milk, cheese and other foods as a dressing. A cake is prepared from ordinary bread dough which is smeared with oil and sprinkled with herbs before baking (Le 2:4). At times of fasting oriental Christians use only vegetable oils, usually olive oil, for cooking. For Biblical references to the use of oil as food see Nu 11:8; De 7:13; 14:23; 32:13; 1Ki 17:12,14,16; 2Ki 4:2,6,7; 1Ch 12:40; 2Ch 2:10,15; Ezr 3:7; Pr 21:17; Eze 16:13,18; Ho 2:5,8,22; Hag 2:12; Re 6:6.

(5) As an Illuminant.

Olive oil until recent years was universally used for lighting purposes (see LAMP). In Palestine are many homes where a most primitive form of lamp similar to those employed by the Israelites is still in use. The prejudice in favor of the exclusive use of olive oil for lighting holy places is disappearing. Formerly any other illuminant was forbidden (compare Ex 25:6; 27:20; 35:8,14,28; 39:37; Mt 25:3,4,8).

(6) In Religious Rites.

(a) Consecration:

Consecration of officials or sacred things (Ge 28:18; 35:14; Ex 29:7,21 ff; Le 2:1 ff; Nu 4:9 ff; 1Sa 10:1; 16:1,13; 2Sa 1:21; 1Ki 1:39; 2Ki 9:1,3,1; Ps 89:20): This was adopted by the early Christians in their ceremonies (Jas 5:14), and is still used in the consecration of crowned rulers and church dignitaries.

(b) Offerings:

Offerings, votive and otherwise: The custom of making offerings of oil to holy places still survives in oriental religions. One may see burning before the shrines along a Syrian roadside or in the churches, small lamps whose supply of oil is kept renewed by pious adherents. In Israelite times oil was used in the meal offering, in the consecration offerings, offerings of purification from leprosy, etc. (Ex 29:2; 40:9 ff; Le 2:2 ff; Nu 4:9 ff; De 18:4; 1Ch 9:29; 2Ch 31:5; Ne 10:37,39; 13:5,12; Eze 16:18,19; 45; 46; Mic 6:7).

(c) Burials:

In connection with the burial of the dead: Egyptian papyri mention this use. In the Old Testament no direct mention is made of the custom. Jesus referred to it in connection with His own burial (Mt 26:12; Mr 14:3-8; Lu 23:56; Joh 12:3-8; 19:40).

4. Figurative Uses:

Abundant oil was a figure of general prosperity (De 32:13; 33:24; 2Ki 18:32; Job 29:6; Joe 2:19,24). Languishing of the oil indicated general famine (Joe 1:10; Hag 1:11). Joy is described as the oil of joy (Isa 61:3), or the oil of gladness (Ps 45:7; Heb 1:9). Ezekiel prophesies that the rivers shall run like oil, i.e. become viscous (Eze 32:14). Words of deceit are softer than oil (Ps 55:21; Pr 5:3). Cursing becomes a habit with the wicked as readily as oil soaks into bones (Ps 109:18). Excessive use of oil indicates wastefulness (Pr 21:17), while the saving of it is a characteristic of the wise (Pr 21:20). Oil was carried into Egypt, i.e. a treaty was made with that country (Ho 12:1).

James A. Patch

Moby Thesaurus

Barbados tar, Haliver Oil, Macassar oil, absinthe, adipose tissue, adulation, aid, alcohol, animal oils, anoint, anthracene oil, aquarelle, asphalt-base oil, avocado oil, balm, balsam, bay oil, beechnut oil, beef tallow, beeswax, benzine, blandishment, blarney, blubber, bone oil, bottlenose oil, briquette, bunker, bunkum, burnable, butane, butter, butter up, butterfat, cajolement, cajolery, camphor, candlenut oil, canvas, carapa oil, carbon, castor oil, cater, cedarwood oil, cerate, charcoal, clear the way, clove oil, coal, coal oil, cocoa butter, cod-liver oil, coke, collyrium, combustible, compliment, copaiba, copra oil, corn oil, creosote, croton oil, dab, daub, demulcent, detonate, doegling oil, dope, dose, drag, dress, dripping, drippings, drug, dub, ease, easel-picture, edible oil, electricity, embrocate, embrocation, emollient, equalize, ethane, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, even, expedite, explain, explode, eyewash, eyewater, facilitate, fair words, fat, fawning, feed, fill up, finger painting, fireball, firing, fish oil, flammable, flammable material, flatten, flattery, flaxseed oil, forage, fuel, fuel additive, fuel dope, fuel oil, fuel up, fulminate, furnace oil, gas, gas carbon, gas oil, gas up, gasoline, get around, ghee, glycerolate, goose grease, gouache, grade, grease, grease the ways, grease the wheels, gum spirit, harrow, hasten, help along, hempseed oil, heptane, hexane, honey, honeyed phrases, honeyed words, illuminant, illuminating gas, incense, inflammable, inflammable material, isooctane, jet fuel, jolly, kekuna oil, kerosene, kid along, lamp oil, lanolin, lard, lard oil, laurel butter, lay, lay it on, lemon oil, level, light source, liniment, linseed oil, lipid, lipoma, loose, lotion, lubricate, luminant, make clear, make way for, margarine, medicate, methane, methanol, mineral oil, mineral seal oil, mineral sperm oil, mineral spirits, mow, mutton tallow, naphthalene, naphthene-base oil, natural gas, nut oil, octane, oil of almonds, oil painting, ointment, oleo, oleomargarine, oleoresin, olive oil, open the way, open up, overdo it, painting, palaver, palm oil, palm-kernel oil, paraffin, pave the way, peanut oil, peat, pentane, perilla oil, petrol, petrolatum, petroleum, petroleum benzine, pine oil, pine tar, pine-tar oil, plane, planish, plaster, play up to, pomade, poppyseed oil, porpoise oil, praise, prepare the way, pretty lies, propane, propellant, provender, provision, purvey, quicken, rape oil, refuel, remove friction, ricinus oil, road oil, rocket fuel, rosin grease, rosin oil, run interference for, salve, saturating oil, seal oil, sell, sesame oil, shale naphtha, shave, shortening, simplify, slick, slick on, smear, smooth, smooth down, smooth out, smooth the way, soap, soap the ways, soft soap, soft-soap, soften up, soybean oil, speed, spikenard, stoke, stove oil, string along, stroke, suet, sweet nothings, sweet talk, sweet words, sycophancy, tallow, technical oil, tempera, top off, turf, turpentine, unbar, unblock, unclog, unction, unguent, unguentum, unjam, victual, vulnerary, wash, wash drawing, water, wax, whale oil, wheedling, wood oil, wool fat




 


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