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Harden definitions

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

H`ARDEN, v.t. h`ardn. To make hard or more hard; to make firm or compact; to indurate; as, to harden iron or steel; to harden clay.
1. To confirm in effrontery; to make impudent; as, to harden the face.
2. To make obstinate, unyielding or refractory; as, to harden the neck. Jeremiah 19.
3. To confirm in wickedness, opposition or enmity; to make obdurate.
Why then do ye harden your hearts, as Pharaoh and the Egyptians hardened their hearts? 2 Samuel 6.
So God is said to harden the heart, when he withdraws the influences of his spirit from men, and leaves them to pursue their own corrupt inclinations.
4. To make insensible or unfeeling; as, to harden one against impressions of pity or tenderness.
5. To make firm; to endure with constancy.
I would harden myself in sorrow. Job 6.
6. To inure; to render firm or less liable to injury, by exposure or use; as, to harden to a climate or to labor.
H`ARDEN, v.i. h`ardn. To become hard or more hard; to acquire solidity or more compactness. Mortar hardens by drying.
1. To become unfeeling.
2. To become inured.
3. To indurate, as flesh.

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

v
1: become hard or harder; "The wax hardened" [syn: harden, indurate] [ant: soften]
2: make hard or harder; "The cold hardened the butter" [syn: harden, indurate] [ant: soften]
3: harden by reheating and cooling in oil; "temper steel" [syn: temper, harden]
4: make fit; "This trip will season even the hardiest traveller" [syn: season, harden]
5: cause to accept or become hardened to; habituate; "He was inured to the cold" [syn: inure, harden, indurate]

Merriam Webster's

verb (hardened; hardening) Date: 13th century transitive verb 1. to make hard or harder 2. to confirm in disposition, feelings, or action; especially to make callous <hardened his heart> 3. a. inure, toughen <harden troops> b. to inure to unfavorable environmental conditions (as cold) often used with off <harden off seedlings before transplanting> 4. to protect from blast, heat, or radiation (as by a thick barrier or placement underground) intransitive verb 1. to become hard or harder 2. a. to become firm, stable, or settled b. to assume an appearance of harshness or severity <her face hardened at the thought> 3. to become gradually acclimatized to unfavorable conditions often used with off <plants hardened off before the first frost>

Merriam Webster's

I. biographical name Sir Arthur 1865-1940 English chemist II. biographical name Maximilian 1861-1927 originally Felix Ernst Witkowski German writer

Oxford Reference Dictionary

v. 1 tr. & intr. make or become hard or harder. 2 intr. & tr. become, or make (one's attitude etc.), uncompromising or less sympathetic. 3 intr. (of prices etc.) cease to fall or fluctuate. Phrases and idioms: harden off inure (a plant) to cold by gradual increase of its exposure. Derivatives: hardener n.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Harden Hard"en, v. i. 1. To become hard or harder; to acquire solidity, or more compactness; as, mortar hardens by drying. The deliberate judgment of those who knew him [A. Lincoln] has hardened into tradition. --The Century. 2. To become confirmed or strengthened, in either a good or a bad sense. They, hardened more by what might most reclaim. --Milton.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Harden Hard"en, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Hardened; p. pr. & vb. n. Hardening.] [OE. hardnen, hardenen.] 1. To make hard or harder; to make firm or compact; to indurate; as, to harden clay or iron. 2. To accustom by labor or suffering to endure with constancy; to strengthen; to stiffen; to inure; also, to confirm in wickedness or shame; to make unimpressionable. ``Harden not your heart.'' --Ps. xcv. 8. I would harden myself in sorrow. --Job vi. 10.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Hurden Hur"den, n. [From Hurds.] A coarse kind of linen; -- called also harden. [Prov. Eng.]

Collin's Cobuild Dictionary

(hardens, hardening, hardened) 1. When something hardens or when you harden it, it becomes stiff or firm. Mould the mixture into shape while hot, before it hardens... Give the cardboard two or three coats of varnish to harden it. VERB: V, V n 2. When an attitude or opinion hardens or is hardened, it becomes harsher, stronger, or fixed. Their action can only serve to harden the attitude of landowners... The bitter split which has developed within Solidarity is likely to harden further into separation. VERB: V n, V hardening ...a hardening of the government's attitude towards rebellious parts of the army. N-SING: usu N of n 3. When prices and economies harden, they become much more stable than they were. Property prices are just beginning to harden again. VERB: V 4. When events harden people or when people harden, they become less easily affected emotionally and less sympathetic and gentle than they were before. Her years of drunken bickering hardened my heart... All of a sudden my heart hardened against her. VERB: V n, V against n 5. If you say that someone's face or eyes harden, you mean that they suddenly look serious or angry. His smile died and the look in his face hardened. VERB: V

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

har'-d'-n (chazaq, qashah; skleruno):

(1) "Harden" occurs most frequently in the phrase "to harden the heart," or "the neck." This hardening of men's hearts is attributed both to God and to men themselves, e.g. with reference to the hearts of Pharaoh and the Egyptians; the Hiphil of chazaq, "to make strong," is frequently used in this connection (Ex 4:21, "I will harden his heart," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "make strong"; Ex 7:13, "And he hardened P.'s heart," the Revised Version (British and American) "was hardened," margin (Hebrew) "was strong"; Ex 7:22; 8:19; 9:12; 10:20,27, etc.; Ex 14:17, "I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "make strong"; compare Jos 11:20); qashah, "to be heavy," "to make hard" (Ex 7:3); kabhedh, "heavy," "slow," "hard," not easily moved (Ex 10:1, the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "made heavy"). When the hardening is attributed to man's own act kabhedh is generally used (Ex 8:15, "He hardened his heart, and hearkened not," the Revised Version margin (Hebrew) "made heavy"; Ex 8:32, "Pharaoh hardened his heart" (the Revised Version margin as before); Ex 9:7,34; 1Sa 6:6 twice). The "hardening" of men's hearts by God is in the way of punishment, but it is always a consequence of their own self-hardening. In Pharaoh's case we read that "he hardened his heart" against the appeal to free the Israelites; so hardening himself, he became always more confirmed in his obstinacy, till he brought the final doom upon himself. This is how sin is made to become its own punishment. It was not confined to Pharaoh and the Egyptians nor does it belong to the past only. As Paul says (Ro 9:18),"Whom he will he hardeneth" (skleruno); Ex 11:7, "The election obtained it, and the rest were hardened" (the Revised Version (British and American) and King James Version margin, poroo, "to make hard" or "callous");a "Hardening in part hath befallen Israel" (porosis); compare Joh 12:40 (from Isa 6:10), "He hath blinded their eyes, and he hardened their heart"; Isa 63:17, "O Yahweh, why dost thou make us to err from thy ways, and hardenest our heart from thy fear?" (qashach, "to harden"); compare on the other side, as expressing the human blameworthiness, Job 9:4, "Who hath hardened himself against him, and prospered?" Mr 3:5, "being grieved at the hardening of their heart;" Mr 6:52, "Their heart was hardened"; Ro 2:5, "after thy hardness and impenitent heart." In Hebrew religious thought everything was directly attributed to God, and the hardening is God's work, in His physical and ethical constitution and laws of man's nature; but it is always the consequence of human action out of harmony therewith. Other instances of skleruno are in Ac 19:9; Heb 3:8,13,15; 4:7.

(2) "Harden" in the sense of "to fortify one's self" (make one's self hard) is the translation of caladh, "to leap," "exult" (Job 6:10 the King James Version, "I would harden myself in sorrow," the Revised Version (British and American) "Let me exult in pain," margin "harden myself").

(3) In Pr 21:29 "harden" has the meaning of "boldness," "defiance" or "shamelessness" (brazen-faced); `azaz, Hiphil, "to strengthen one's countenance," "A wicked man hardeneth his face"; Delitzsch, "A godless man showeth boldness in his mien"; compare Pr 7:13; Ec 8:1; see also HARD.

For "harden" the Revised Version (British and American) has "stubborn" (Ex 7:14; 9:7, margin "heavy"); "hardenest" (Isa 63:17); "made stiff" (Jer 7:26; 19:15); for "is hardened" (Job 39:16, the American Standard Revised Version "dealeth hardly," and the English Revised Version margin); "at the hardening" instead of "for the hardness" (Mr 3:5); "hardening" for "blindness" (Eph 4:18).

W. L. Walker

Soule's Dictionary of English Synonyms

I. v. a. 1. Indurate, make hard, make callous. 2. Habituate, inure, season, accustom, form, train, discipline. 3. Strengthen, fortify, steel, nerve, brace. 4. Sear, make callous, render insensible or unimpressible, make unfeeling. 5. Make obdurate, confirm in wickedness. II. v. n. Grow or become hard, indurate.

Moby Thesaurus

acclimate, acclimatize, accommodate, accustom, adapt, adjust, anneal, be tough, beef up, brace, brace up, break, break in, brutalize, buttress, cake, calcify, callous, case harden, caseharden, compact, concrete, condition, confirm, conform, congeal, consolidate, cornify, crystallize, densify, domesticate, domesticize, dry, endure, establish, familiarize, firm, fix, fortify, fossilize, freeze, gentle, gird, habituate, hang tough, housebreak, indurate, intensify, inure, invigorate, lapidify, lithify, naturalize, nerve, orient, orientate, ossify, petrify, prop, refresh, reinforce, reinvigorate, restrengthen, season, set, shore up, solidify, steel, stiffen, strengthen, support, sustain, tame, temper, toughen, train, turn to stone, undergird, vitrify, wont



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