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Esox niger
Esox nobilitor
Esox reticulatus
ESP
esp.
Espace
Espadon
espadrille
Espagnole
Espaliered
Espaliering
Espana
Espand
Esparcet
Esparitu Santo
Espartero
esparto
esparto grass
Espauliere
Especial
Especially

Espalier definitions

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

ESPAL'IER, n. [L. palus, a stake or pole.] A row of trees planted about a garden or in hedges, so as to inclose quarters or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close hedge or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather.
ESPAL'IER, v.t. To form an espalier, or to protect by an espalier.

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: a trellis on which ornamental shrub or fruit tree is trained to grow flat

Merriam Webster's

I. noun Etymology: French, ultimately from Italian spalla shoulder, from Late Latin spatula shoulder blade more at epaulet Date: 1662 1. a plant (as a fruit tree) trained to grow flat against a support (as a wall) 2. a railing or trellis on which fruit trees or shrubs are trained to grow flat II. transitive verb Date: 1810 1. to train as an espalier 2. to furnish with an espalier

Britannica Concise

Tree or other plant trained to grow flat against a support (such as a trellis or wall). The term is also used for the support itself, as well as for the method or technique. The technique was developed in Europe to encourage fruit-tree production in an incompatible climate; it originally used a wall to provide heat as well as support. Decorative or space-saving espaliers use metal, wire, or wooden frames to create ornamental shapes for shrubbery or to train trees on trellises, walls, or fences. Evergreens such as loquat, fire thorn, sweet bay magnolia, and upright yew, as well as dwarf apple and pear trees, make excellent espaliers.

Oxford Reference Dictionary

n. 1 a lattice-work along which the branches of a tree or shrub are trained to grow flat against a wall etc. 2 a tree or shrub trained in this way. Etymology: F f. It. spalliera f. spalla shoulder

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Espalier Es*pal"ier, n. [F. espalier, fr. It. spalliera, fr. spalla shoulder, the same word as F. ['e]paule. See Epaulet.] (Hort.) A railing or trellis upon which fruit trees or shrubs are trained, as upon a wall; a tree or row of trees so trained. And figs from standard and espalier join. --Pope.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Espalier Es*pal"ier, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Espaliered; p. pr. & vb. n. Espaliering.] To form an espalier of, or to protect by an espalier.



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