wordswarm.net: free dictionary lookup
Wordswarms From Years Past


13-Letter Words
12-Letter Words
11-Letter Words
10-Letter Words
9-Letter Words
8-Letter Words
7-Letter Words
6-Letter Words
5-Letter Words
4-Letter Words
3-Letter Words


Adjacent Words

chin music
chin rest
chin strap
chin up
chin wag
chin wagging
Chin whelk
chin-chin
Chin-chou
Chin-chou, Chinchow
Chin-cough
chin-up
chin-wag
chin-wagging
China aster
China asters
China bean
China brier
china cabinet
china clay
china closet
China fleece vine
China grass
China ink
China jute
China lake
china pink
China root

China definitions

Flags of the World

Flag of China

CIA World Factbook, 2008

Background
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.

Location
total: 9,596,960 sq km land: 9,326,410 sq km water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative
total: 22,117 km border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km

Coastline
territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m

Natural resources
arable land: 14.86% permanent crops: 1.27% other: 83.87% (2005)

Irrigated land
Total: 549.76 cu km/yr (7%/26%/68%) Per capita: 415 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note
0-14 years: 20.4% (male 143,527,634/female 126,607,344) 15-64 years: 71.7% (male 487,079,770/female 460,596,384) 65 years and over: 7.9% (male 49,683,856/female 54,356,900) (2007 est.)

Median age
total: 33.2 years male: 32.7 years female: 33.7 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate
at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.134 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.914 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births male: 20.01 deaths/1,000 live births female: 24.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.88 years male: 71.13 years female: 74.82 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate
noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

Languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.9% male: 95.1% female: 86.5% (2000 census)

Country name
conventional long form: People's Republic of China conventional short form: China local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo local short form: Zhongguo abbreviation: PRC

Government type
name: Beijing geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone

Administrative divisions
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence
chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003); Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003) head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Vice Premier WU Yi (17 March 2003), Vice Premier ZENG Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003) cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC) elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2003 (next to be held in mid-March 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress with a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant

Legislative branch
elections: last held December 2002-February 2003 (next to be held in late 2007-February 2008) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch
chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr. embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831 FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description
agriculture: 11% industry: 49.5% services: 39.5% note: industry includes construction (2007 est.)

Labor force
agriculture: 43% industry: 25% services: 32% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate
lowest 10%: 1.6% highest 10%: 34.9% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index
revenues: $640.6 billion expenditures: $634.6 billion (2007 est.)

Public debt
general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering with foreign providers to expand its global reach; 3 of China's 6 major telecommunications operators are part of an international consortium which, in December 2006, signed an agreement with Verizon Business to build the first next-generation fiber optic submarine cable system directly linking the US mainland and China domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of internet users reached 162 million in 2007; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2007)

Radio broadcast stations
total: 403 over 3,047 m: 58 2,438 to 3,047 m: 128 1,524 to 2,437 m: 130 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 67 (2007)

Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 64 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 17 under 914 m: 26 (2007)

Heliports
total: 75,438 km standard gauge: 75,438 km 1.435-m gauge (20,151 km electrified) (2005)

Roadways
total: 1,870,661 km paved: 1,515,797 km (with at least 34,288 km of expressways) unpaved: 354,864 km (2004)

Waterways
total: 1,775 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,219,786 GRT/33,819,636 DWT by type: barge carrier 3, bulk carrier 415, cargo 689, carrier 3, chemical tanker 62, combination ore/oil 2, container 157, liquefied gas 35, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 84, petroleum tanker 250, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 17 foreign-owned: 12 (Ecuador 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 6, Japan 2, South Korea 1, Norway 1) registered in other countries: 1,366 (Bahamas 9, Bangladesh 1, Belize 107, Bermuda 10, Bolivia 1, Cambodia 166, Cyprus 10, France 5, Georgia 4, Germany 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 309, India 1, Indonesia 2, Liberia 32, Malaysia 1, Malta 13, Marshall Islands 3, Mongolia 3, Norway 47, Panama 473, Philippines 2, Sierra Leone 8, Singapore 19, St Vincent and The Grenadines 106, Thailand 1, Turkey 1, Tuvalu 25, unknown 33) (2007)

Ports and terminals
males age 18-49: 342,956,265 females age 18-49: 324,701,244 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 18-49: 281,240,272 females age 18-49: 269,025,517 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually
males age 18-49: 13,186,433 females age 18-49: 12,298,149 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
refugees (country of origin): 300,897 (Vietnam), estimated 30,000-50,000 (North Korea) IDPs: 90,000 (2006)

Trafficking in persons
current situation: China is a source, transit, and destination country for women, men, and children trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; the majority of trafficking in China is internal, but there is also international trafficking of Chinese citizens; women are lured through false promises of legitimate employment into commercial sexual exploitation in Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan; Chinese men and women are smuggled to countries throughout the world at enormous personal expense and then forced into commercial sexual exploitation or exploitative labor to repay debts to traffickers; women and children are trafficked into China from Mongolia, Burma, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam for forced labor, marriage, and sexual slavery; most North Koreans enter northeastern China voluntarily, but others reportedly are trafficked into China from North Korea; domestic trafficking remains the most significant problem in China, with an estimated minimum of 10,000-20,000 victims trafficked each year; the actual number of victims could be much greater; some experts believe that the serious and prolonged imbalance in the male-female birth ratio may now be contributing to Chinese and foreign girls and women being trafficked as potential brides tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - China failed to show evidence of increasing efforts to address transnational trafficking; while the government provides reasonable protection to internal victims of trafficking, protection for Chinese and foreign victims of transnational trafficking remain inadequate

Illicit drugs
major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CHINA, n. A species of earthern ware made in China, and so called from the country; called also china ware and porcelain. [See Porcelain.]

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world [syn: China, People's Republic of China, mainland China, Communist China, Red China, PRC, Cathay]
2: high quality porcelain originally made only in China
3: a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the Communists led by Mao Zedong [syn: Taiwan, China, Nationalist China, Republic of China]
4: dishware made of high quality porcelain [syn: chinaware, china]

Merriam Webster's

noun Etymology: Persian ch?n? Chinese porcelain Date: 1579 1. porcelain; also vitreous porcelain wares (as dishes, vases, or ornaments) for domestic use 2. earthenware or porcelain tableware

Oxford Reference Dictionary

n. & adj. --n. 1 a kind of fine white or translucent ceramic ware, porcelain, etc. 2 things made from ceramic, esp. household tableware. 3 rhymingsl. one's 'mate', i.e. husband or wife (short for china plate). --adj. made of china. Phrases and idioms: china clay kaolin. China tea smoke-cured tea from a small-leaved tea plant grown in China. Etymology: orig. China ware (from China in Asia): name f. Pers. chini

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Pink Pink, n. [Perh. akin to pick; as if the edges of the petals were picked out. Cf. Pink, v. t.] 1. (Bot.) A name given to several plants of the caryophyllaceous genus Dianthus, and to their flowers, which are sometimes very fragrant and often double in cultivated varieties. The species are mostly perennial herbs, with opposite linear leaves, and handsome five-petaled flowers with a tubular calyx. 2. A color resulting from the combination of a pure vivid red with more or less white; -- so called from the common color of the flower. --Dryden. 3. Anything supremely excellent; the embodiment or perfection of something. ``The very pink of courtesy.'' --Shak. 4. (Zo["o]l.) The European minnow; -- so called from the color of its abdomen in summer. [Prov. Eng.] Bunch pink is Dianthus barbatus. China, or Indian, pink. See under China. Clove pink is Dianthus Caryophyllus, the stock from which carnations are derived. Garden pink. See Pheasant's eye. Meadow pink is applied to Dianthus deltoides; also, to the ragged robin. Maiden pink, Dianthus deltoides. Moss pink. See under Moss. Pink needle, the pin grass; -- so called from the long, tapering points of the carpels. See Alfilaria. Sea pink. See Thrift.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Porcelain Por"ce*lain (277), n. [F. porcelaine, It. porcellana, orig., the porcelain shell, or Venus shell (Cypr[ae]a porcellana), from a dim. fr. L. porcus pig, probably from the resemblance of the shell in shape to a pig's back. Porcelain was called after this shell, either on account of its smoothness and whiteness, or because it was believed to be made from it. See Pork.] A fine translucent or semitransculent kind of earthenware, made first in China and Japan, but now also in Europe and America; -- called also China, or China ware. Porcelain, by being pure, is apt to break. --Dryden. Ivory porcelain, porcelain with a surface like ivory, produced by depolishing. See Depolishing. Porcelain clay. See under Clay. Porcelain crab (Zo["o]l.), any crab of the genus Porcellana and allied genera (family Porcellanid[ae]). They have a smooth, polished carapace. Porcelain jasper. (Min.) See Porcelanite. Porcelain printing, the transferring of an impression of an engraving to porcelain. Porcelain shell (Zo["o]l.), a cowry.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

China Chi"na, n. 1. A country in Eastern Asia. 2. China ware, which is the modern popular term for porcelain. See Porcelain. China aster (Bot.), a well-known garden flower and plant. See Aster. China bean. See under Bean, 1. China clay See Kaolin. China grass, Same as Ramie. China ink. See India ink. China pink (Bot.), an anual or biennial species of Dianthus (D. Chiensis) having variously colored single or double flowers; Indian pink. China root (Med.), the rootstock of a species of Smilax (S. China, from the East Indies; -- formerly much esteemed for the purposes that sarsaparilla is now used for. Also the galanga root (from Alpinia Gallanga and Alpinia officinarum). China rose. (Bot.) (a) A popular name for several free-blooming varieties of rose derived from the Rosa Indica, and perhaps other species. (b) A flowering hothouse plant (Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis) of the Mallow family, common in the gardens of China and the east Indies. China shop, a shop or store for the sale of China ware or of crockery. China ware, porcelain; -- so called in the 17th century because brought from the far East, and differing from the pottery made in Europe at that time; also, loosely, crockery in general. Pride of China, China tree. (Bot.) See Azedarach.

Collin's Cobuild Dictionary

1. China is a hard white substance made from clay. It is used to make things such as cups, bowls, plates, and ornaments. ...a small boat made of china. ...china cups. N-UNCOUNT: oft N n see also bone china 2. Cups, bowls, plates, and ornaments made of china are referred to as china. Judy collects blue and white china.

Soule's Dictionary of English Synonyms

n. Porcelain, Chinaware.

Moby Thesaurus

adobe, biscuit, bisque, bowl, brick, bubble, cement, ceramic ware, ceramics, clay, crock, crockery, eggshell, enamel, enamelware, firebrick, glass, glass house, house of cards, ice, jug, matchwood, old paper, parchment, piecrust, porcelain, pot, pottery, refractory, tile, tiling, urn, vase




 


wordswarm.net: free dictionary lookup