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black martin
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black oak definitions

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: medium to large deciduous timber tree of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada having dark outer bark and yellow inner bark used for tanning; broad five-lobed leaves are bristle-tipped [syn: black oak, yellow oak, quercitron, quercitron oak, Quercus velutina]

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus Quercus. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and staminate flowers in catkins. The fruit is a smooth nut, called an acorn, which is more or less inclosed in a scaly involucre called the cup or cupule. There are now recognized about three hundred species, of which nearly fifty occur in the United States, the rest in Europe, Asia, and the other parts of North America, a very few barely reaching the northern parts of South America and Africa. Many of the oaks form forest trees of grand proportions and live many centuries. The wood is usually hard and tough, and provided with conspicuous medullary rays, forming the silver grain. 2. The strong wood or timber of the oak. Note: Among the true oaks in America are: Barren oak, or Black-jack, Q. nigra. Basket oak, Q. Michauxii. Black oak, Q. tinctoria; -- called also yellow or quercitron oak. Bur oak (see under Bur.), Q. macrocarpa; -- called also over-cup or mossy-cup oak. Chestnut oak, Q. Prinus and Q. densiflora. Chinquapin oak (see under Chinquapin), Q. prinoides. Coast live oak, Q. agrifolia, of California; -- also called enceno. Live oak (see under Live), Q. virens, the best of all for shipbuilding; also, Q. Chrysolepis, of California. Pin oak. Same as Swamp oak. Post oak, Q. obtusifolia. Red oak, Q. rubra. Scarlet oak, Q. coccinea. Scrub oak, Q. ilicifolia, Q. undulata, etc. Shingle oak, Q. imbricaria. Spanish oak, Q. falcata. Swamp Spanish oak, or Pin oak, Q. palustris. Swamp white oak, Q. bicolor. Water oak, Q. aguatica. Water white oak, Q. lyrata. Willow oak, Q. Phellos. Among the true oaks in Europe are: Bitter oak, or Turkey oak, Q. Cerris (see Cerris). Cork oak, Q. Suber. English white oak, Q. Robur. Evergreen oak, Holly oak, or Holm oak, Q. Ilex. Kermes oak, Q. coccifera. Nutgall oak, Q. infectoria. Note: Among plants called oak, but not of the genus Quercus, are: African oak, a valuable timber tree (Oldfieldia Africana). Australian, or She, oak, any tree of the genus Casuarina (see Casuarina). Indian oak, the teak tree (see Teak). Jerusalem oak. See under Jerusalem. New Zealand oak, a sapindaceous tree (Alectryon excelsum). Poison oak, the poison ivy. See under Poison.

Webster's 1913 Dictionary

Black Black, a. [OE. blak, AS. bl[ae]c; akin to Icel. blakkr dark, swarthy, Sw. bl["a]ck ink, Dan. bl[ae]k, OHG. blach, LG. & D. blaken to burn with a black smoke. Not akin to AS. bl[=a]c, E. bleak pallid. ?98.] 1. Destitute of light, or incapable of reflecting it; of the color of soot or coal; of the darkest or a very dark color, the opposite of white; characterized by such a color; as, black cloth; black hair or eyes. O night, with hue so black! --Shak. 2. In a less literal sense: Enveloped or shrouded in darkness; very dark or gloomy; as, a black night; the heavens black with clouds. I spy a black, suspicious, threatening cloud. --Shak. 3. Fig.: Dismal, gloomy, or forbidding, like darkness; destitute of moral light or goodness; atrociously wicked; cruel; mournful; calamitous; horrible. ``This day's black fate.'' ``Black villainy.'' ``Arise, black vengeance.'' ``Black day.'' ``Black despair.'' --Shak. 4. Expressing menace, or discontent; threatening; sullen; foreboding; as, to regard one with black looks. Note: Black is often used in self-explaining compound words; as, black-eyed, black-faced, black-haired, black-visaged. Black act, the English statute 9 George I, which makes it a felony to appear armed in any park or warren, etc., or to hunt or steal deer, etc., with the face blackened or disguised. Subsequent acts inflicting heavy penalties for malicious injuries to cattle and machinery have been called black acts. Black angel (Zo["o]l.), a fish of the West Indies and Florida (Holacanthus tricolor), with the head and tail yellow, and the middle of the body black. Black antimony (Chem.), the black sulphide of antimony, Sb2S3, used in pyrotechnics, etc. Black bear (Zo["o]l.), the common American bear (Ursus Americanus). Black beast. See B[^e]te noire. Black beetle (Zo["o]l.), the common large cockroach (Blatta orientalis). Black and blue, the dark color of a bruise in the flesh, which is accompanied with a mixture of blue. ``To pinch the slatterns black and blue.'' --Hudibras. Black bonnet (Zo["o]l.), the black-headed bunting (Embriza Sch[oe]niclus) of Europe. Black canker, a disease in turnips and other crops, produced by a species of caterpillar. Black cat (Zo["o]l.), the fisher, a quadruped of North America allied to the sable, but larger. See Fisher. Black cattle, any bovine cattle reared for slaughter, in distinction from dairy cattle. [Eng.] Black cherry. See under Cherry. Black cockatoo (Zo["o]l.), the palm cockatoo. See Cockatoo. Black copper. Same as Melaconite. Black currant. (Bot.) See Currant. Black diamond. (Min.) See Carbonado. Black draught (Med.), a cathartic medicine, composed of senna and magnesia. Black drop (Med.), vinegar of opium; a narcotic preparation consisting essentially of a solution of opium in vinegar. Black earth, mold; earth of a dark color. --Woodward. Black flag, the flag of a pirate, often bearing in white a skull and crossbones; a signal of defiance. Black flea (Zo["o]l.), a flea beetle (Haltica nemorum) injurious to turnips. Black flux, a mixture of carbonate of potash and charcoal, obtained by deflagrating tartar with half its weight of niter. --Brande & C. Black fly. (Zo["o]l.) (a) In the United States, a small, venomous, two-winged fly of the genus Simulium of several species, exceedingly abundant and troublesome in the northern forests. The larv[ae] are aquatic. (b) A black plant louse, as the bean aphis (A. fab[ae]). Black Forest [a translation of G. Schwarzwald], a forest in Baden and W["u]rtemburg, in Germany; a part of the ancient Hercynian forest. Black game, or Black grouse. (Zo["o]l.) See Blackcock, Grouse, and Heath grouse. Black grass (Bot.), a grasslike rush of the species Juncus Gerardi, growing on salt marshes, and making good hay. Black gum (Bot.), an American tree, the tupelo or pepperidge. See Tupelo. Black Hamburg (grape) (Bot.), a sweet and juicy variety of dark purple or ``black'' grape. Black horse (Zo["o]l.), a fish of the Mississippi valley (Cycleptus elongatus), of the sucker family; the Missouri sucker. Black lemur (Zo["o]l.), the Lemurniger of Madagascar; the acoumbo of the natives. Black list, a list of persons who are for some reason thought deserving of censure or punishment; -- esp. a list of persons stigmatized as insolvent or untrustworthy, made for the protection of tradesmen or employers. See Blacklist, v. t. Black manganese (Chem.), the black oxide of manganese, MnO2. Black Maria, the close wagon in which prisoners are carried to or from jail. Black martin (Zo["o]l.), the chimney swift. See Swift. Black moss (Bot.), the common so-called long moss of the southern United States. See Tillandsia. Black oak. See under Oak. Black ocher. See Wad. Black pigment, a very fine, light carbonaceous substance, or lampblack, prepared chiefly for the manufacture of printers' ink. It is obtained by burning common coal tar. Black plate, sheet iron before it is tinned. --Knight. Black quarter, malignant anthrax with engorgement of a shoulder or quarter, etc., as of an ox. Black rat (Zo["o]l.), one of the species of rats (Mus rattus), commonly infesting houses. Black rent. See Blackmail, n., 3. Black rust, a disease of wheat, in which a black, moist matter is deposited in the fissures of the grain. Black sheep, one in a family or company who is unlike the rest, and makes trouble. Black silver. (Min.) See under Silver. Black and tan, black mixed or spotted with tan color or reddish brown; -- used in describing certain breeds of dogs. Black tea. See under Tea. Black tin (Mining), tin ore (cassiterite), when dressed, stamped and washed, ready for smelting. It is in the form of a black powder, like fine sand. --Knight. Black walnut. See under Walnut. Black warrior (Zo["o]l.), an American hawk (Buteo Harlani). Syn: Dark; murky; pitchy; inky; somber; dusky; gloomy; swart; Cimmerian; ebon; atrocious.



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