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Adjacent Words

Alawi
Alawite
Alb
Alb Sunday
Alba Longa
Albacete
albacore
Alban
Alban Berg
Alban Hills
Albani, Francesco
Albanian
Albanian capital
Albanian language
Albanian monetary unit
Albano, Lake
Albanus Lacus
Albanus Mons
Albany
albata
Albatrellus
Albatrellus dispansus
Albatrellus ovinus
Albatros

Full-text Search for "Albania"
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Albania definitions

Flags of the World

Flag of Albania

CIA World Factbook, 2008

Background
Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.

Location
total: 28,748 sq km land: 27,398 sq km water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative
total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Serbia 115 km

Coastline
territorial sea: 12 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources
arable land: 20.1% permanent crops: 4.21% other: 75.69% (2005)

Irrigated land
Total: 1.71 cu km/yr (27%/11%/62%) Per capita: 546 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note
0-14 years: 24.1% (male 454,622/female 413,698) 15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,228,497/female 1,170,489) 65 years and over: 9.3% (male 154,352/female 178,865) (2007 est.)

Median age
total: 29.2 years male: 28.6 years female: 29.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.099 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.863 male(s)/female total population: 1.042 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 20.02 deaths/1,000 live births male: 20.46 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 77.6 years male: 74.95 years female: 80.53 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate
noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages
definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 98.7% male: 99.2% female: 98.3% (2001 census)

Country name
conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type
name: Tirana (Tirane) geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions
chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 July 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005) cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 July 2007 (next election to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; People's Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes

Legislative branch
elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19

Judicial branch
chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. John L. WITHERS, II embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510 telephone: [355] (4) 247285 FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description
note: Albania has a large gray economy that may be as large as 50% of official GDP (2007 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)
agriculture: 21.7% industry: 20.3% services: 58% (2007 est.)

Labor force
agriculture: 58% industry: 15% services: 27% (September 2006 est.)

Unemployment rate
lowest 10%: 3.4% highest 10%: 24.4% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index
revenues: $2.752 billion expenditures: $3.129 billion (2007 est.)

Public debt
note: top donors were Italy, EU, Germany (2005 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
note: the plural of lek is leke

Exchange rates
general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains low with roughly 10 lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density is approximately 60 telephones per 100 persons domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005; internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2007)

Radio broadcast stations
total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2007)

Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 8 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 4 (2007)

Heliports
total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)

Roadways
total: 18,000 km paved: 7,020 km unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

Waterways
total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 56,550 GRT/85,521 DWT by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1) registered in other countries: 3 (Georgia 2, Panama 1) (2007)

Ports and terminals
males age 19-49: 809,524 females age 19-49: 784,199 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 19-49: 668,526 females age 19-49: 648,334 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually
males age 18-49: 37,407 females age 19-49: 34,587 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP
1.49% (2005 est.)

Disputes - international
the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy

Illicit drugs
increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2005)

n
1: a republic in southeastern Europe on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula [syn: Albania, Republic of Albania]

Merriam Webster's

geographical name 1. ancient country Europe in E Caucasus region on W side of Caspian Sea 2. country S Europe in Balkan Peninsula on the Adriatic; a republic capital Tiranė area 11,100 square miles (28,749 square kilometers), population 3,357,000

Britannica Concise

Nation, W Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula. Area: 11,000 sq mi (28,700 sq km). Population (1992 est.): 3,400,000. Capital: Tiranė . Ethnic Albanians are the Ghegs and the Tosks. Language: Albanian (official). Religions: Islam; minority, Christianity (Greek Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism). Currency: lek. Albania may be divided into two major regions, a mountainous highland region and a W coastal lowland region that contains the country's agricultural lands and most of its population. It has a developing economy that until 1991 was shaped by a socialist system of state ownership. In 1992 the government introduced economic reforms encouraging a free-market economy. The Albanians are descended from the Illyrians, an ancient Indo-European people who lived in central Europe and migrated south by the beginning of the Iron Age (see Illyria). Of the two major Illyrian migrating groups, the Ghegs settled in the north and the Tosks in the south, along with Greek colonizers. The area was under Roman rule by the 1st cent. BC; after AD 395 it was connected administratively to Constantinople. Turkish invasion began in the 14th cent. and continued into the 15th cent.; though the national hero, Skanderbeg, was able to resist them for a time, after his death (1468) the Turks consolidated their rule. The country achieved independence in 1912 and was admitted into the League of Nations in 1920. It was briefly a republic (1925-28), then became a monarchy under Zog I, whose initial alliance with B. Mussolini led to Italy's invasion of Albania in 1939. After the war a socialist government under E. Hoxha was installed, and gradually Albania cut itself off from the nonsocialist international community, and eventually from all nations, incl. China, its last political ally. By 1990 economic hardship had produced antigovernment demonstrations, and in 1992 a non-Communist government was elected and Albania's international isolation ended. In 1997 it plunged into chaos, brought on with the collapse of pyramid investment schemes. In 1999 it was overwhelmed by ethnic Albanians seeking refuge from Yugoslavia (see Kosovo conflict).



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